The Optophone, a type-reading machine, was invented in 1913 by Dr. Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe of Birmingham, England. The device was meant to assist the blind with reading text. The Optophone's photosensors were able to interpret black text off of a white page and convert it to sound. Barr & Stroud Limited, an engineering company located in Glasgow, Scotland, manufactured some later examples.
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