Edward H. Hebern of Oakland, California invented several encryption devices during the first half of the 20th century. These included single-, three- and five-rotor models. He also invented a more basic "code typewriter" that came with a "code bar." The code typewriter, based on the image, was a modified Blickensderfer typewriter. Edward's first company, The Hebern Electric, Inc., produced these code machines in Oakland. After it went bankrupt, Edward tried again and started the International Code Machine Company in Reno, Nevada.