The Gardner typewriter was invented by John Gardner, ca.1890. It was produced by The Gardner British Typewriter, Limited of Manchester, England. The Gardner was designed with just 13 keys at first (later 14) which produced 78 characters. The 13 keys were meant to be utilized in combination to generate words. The Gardner was rebranded to the shreibmaschine Victoria for Germany's markets and to the machine à écrire Victorieuse for the French.
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